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Limba, ( Frakke )

  • Common Name(s): Limba, Black Limba, White Limba, Korina, Afara
  • Scientific Name: Terminalia superba
  • Distribution: Tropical western Africa
  • Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 5-7 ft (1.5-2.2 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (555 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .43, .56
  • Janka Hardness: 670 lbf (2,990 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 12,510 lbf/in2 (86.2 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,520,000 lbf/in2 (10.49 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 6,580 lbf/in2 (45.4 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 4.3%, Tangential: 6.3%, Volumetric: 10.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.5
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light yellowish to golden brown, sometimes with grey to nearly black streaks and veins
  • Color/Appearance: Wood with such darker figuring is referred to as Black Limba, while plain unfigured wood is called White Limba. Sapwood is a pale greyish to yellowish brown.
  • Color/Appearance: Not clearly demarcated from the heartwood. Color tends to darken with age.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is straight to slightly interlocked, with a uniformly coarse texture. Moderate natural luster
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable, and also susceptible to insect attack.
  • Workability: Easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Contains a small amount of silica, but blunting effect on cutters is usually small. Glues and finishes well.
  • Odor: Limba has a mild odor while being worked.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Limba has been reported to cause skin irritation and respiratory irritation, as well hives, asthma-like symptoms.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Bleeding of the nose and gums. Splinters also tend to become infected and take longer than usual to heal.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, plywood, furniture, musical instruments (electric guitar bodies), and turned objects.

Avodire

  • Distribution: Western and central regions of Africa, near lakes and streams
  • Tree Size: 80-115 ft (25-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .48, .61
  • Janka Hardness: 1,080 lbf (4,800 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 15,670 lbf/in2 (108.1 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,570,000 lbf/in2 (10.83 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 7,770 lbf/in2 (53.6 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 4.6%, Tangential: 6.7%, Volumetric: 12.0%, T/R Ratio: 1.5
  • Color/Appearance: Pale yellow or cream, darkening with age to a golden yellow. Heartwood and sapwood usually look the same.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain can be straight, wavy, or irregular and interlocked. Texture is fine, with a high natural luster, and small to medium-sized open pores.
  • Rot Resistance: Avodire is non-durable in regards to decay resistance, and is susceptible to insect attack.
  • Workability: Avodire is generally regarded as having good working characteristics, and is easy to work with hand or machine tools:
  • Workability: Though wood with interlocked grain can pose a challenge with tearout while being planed. The wood also has a slight blunting effect on tool cutters. Avodire glues and finishes well.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Avodire has been reported to cause skin irritation, nosebleeds, internal bleeding, and asthma-like symptoms.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List.
  • Sustainability: It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation
  • Common Uses: Veneer, cabinetry, furniture, millwork, and plywood.

Afromosia

  • Common Name(s): Afrormosia, Afromosia, African Teak
  • Distribution: West Africa
  • Tree Size: 150 ft (46 m) tall, 3-6 ft (1-2 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 45 lbs/ft3 (715 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .71
  • Janka Hardness: 1,560 lbf (6,940 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 13,300 lbf/in2 (91.7 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,590,000 lbf/in2 (10.97 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 9,730 lbf/in2 (67.1 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 3.0%, Tangential: 6.4%, Volumetric: 10.7%, T/R Ratio: 2.1
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is typically a yellowish brown, occasion will have an either reddish or olive hue. Color tends to darken with age.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is usually straight, though it can also be interlocked. With a fine uniform texture and good natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as very durable regarding decay resistance, and is also resistant to termites and other insects.
  • Workability: In nearly all regards, Afrormosia is easy to work with both hand and machine tools, though surfacing boards with interlocking grain may cause tearout.
  • Workability: Other downsides include a slight blunting effect on cutting edges, and the development of dark stains if left in contact with iron in damp conditions. Afrormosia turns, glues, stains.
  • Odor: Afrormosia has a distinct odor while being worked.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Afrormosia has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions include eye, skin, and respiratory irritation.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Afrormosia has also been known to cause nervous system effects, as well as splinters having an increased chance of getting infected.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is in CITES Appendix II, and is on the IUCN Red List
  • Sustainability: It is listed as endangered due to a population reduction of over 50% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Boatbuilding, veneer, flooring, and furniture.

Anigre

  • Common Name(s): Anigre, Anegre, Aniegre, Aningeria, (and variant spellings)
  • Distribution: Africa (most common in tropical areas of east Africa)
  • Tree Size: 100-180 ft (30-55 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1.0-1.2 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 34 lbs/ft3 (550 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .44, .55
  • Janka Hardness: 990 lbf (4,380 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 12,040 lbf/in2 (83.0 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,588,000 lbf/in2 (10.95 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 6,920 lbf/in2 (47.7 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 3.8%, Tangential: 7.0%, Volumetric: 11.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.8
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light yellowish-brown, sometimes with a pinkish hue. Color tends to darken to a more golden brown with age. Pale sapwood is not well defined.
  • Color/Appearance: Figured grain is occasionally present, such as curly or mottled grain.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is straight to interlocked, with a medium uniform texture and a good natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable to perishable. Not resistant to insect attack. Sapwood susceptible to blue fungal staining during initial drying.
  • Workability: Overall working characteristics are fair, though depending on the species used, Anigre may have silica present and therefore have a blunting effect on tools.
  • Odor: Anigre is reported to have a faint odor similar to cedar.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: There have been no adverse health effects associated with Anigre.
  • Sustainability: Anigre is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but some species are reported by the IUCN as being conservation dependent.
  • Sustainability: Cessation of any current conservation programs would likely result in a vulnerable or endangered Red List status.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, plywood and interior furniture; in board form it’s used for boatbuilding, general carpentry, and other light construction uses.

Iroko

  • Distribution: Tropical Africa
  • Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (675 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .68
  • Janka Hardness: 1,260 lbf (5,610 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 12,700 lbf/in2 (87.6 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,360,000 lbf/in2 (9.38 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 7,840 lbf/in2 (54.0 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 2.8%, Tangential: 3.8%, Volumetric: 8.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.4
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is usually a yellow to golden or medium brown, with color tending to darken over time.
  • Grain/Texture: Iroko has a medium to coarse texture, with open pores and an interlocked grain.
  • Rot Resistance: Iroko is very durable, and is resistant to both rot and insect attack; it’s sometimes used as a substitute for Teak.
  • Workability: Generally easy to work, with the exception of its interlocked grain, which may cause some tearout during surfacing operations.
  • Workability: deposits of calcium carbonate are sometimes present, which can have a significant dulling effect on cutters. Iroko glues and finishes well.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Iroko has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye, skin, and respiratory irritation.
  • Iroko can also cause other health effects in sensitive individuals, such as asthma, boils, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List.
  • Sustainability: It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, flooring, furniture, cabinetry, boatbuilding, turned items, and other small specialty wood items.

Sapele

  • Common Name(s): Sapele, Sapelli
  • Distribution: Africa
  • Tree Size: 100-150 ft (30-45 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (670 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .50, .67
  • Janka Hardness: 1,410 lbf (6,280 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 15,930 lbf/in2 (109.9 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,746,000 lbf/in2 (12.04 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 8,750 lbf/in2 (60.4 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 4.8%, Tangential: 7.2%, Volumetric: 12.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.5
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a medium to dark reddish brown or purplish brown. Color tends to darken with age. Besides the common ribbon pattern seen on quartersawn boards.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked, and sometimes wavy. Fine uniform texture and good natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Heartwood ranges from moderately durable to very durable in regard to decay resistance. Sapele is susceptible to insect attack.
  • Workability: Sapele can be troublesome to work in some machining operations, (i.e., planing, routing, etc.), resulting in tearout due to its interlocked grain.
  • Workability: It will also react when put into direct contact with iron, becoming discolored and stained. Sapele has a slight blunting effect on cutters, but it turns, glues, and finishes well.
  • Odor: Sapele has a distinct, cedar-like scent while being worked.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Sapele has been reported as a skin and respiratory irritant.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List.
  • Sustainability: It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, plywood, furniture, cabinetry, flooring, boatbuilding, musical instruments, turned objects, and other small wooden specialty items.

Mansonia

  • Scientific Name: Mansonia altissima
  • Distribution: West tropical Africa
  • Tree Size: 120 ft (37 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (675 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .54, .67
  • Janka Hardness: 1,290 lbf (5,740 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 16,600 lbf/in2 (114.5 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,570,000 lbf/in2 (10.83 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 7,800 lbf/in2 (53.8 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 4.4%, Tangential: 7.3%, Volumetric: 10.2%, T/R Ratio: 1.7
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood tends to be a yellowish or grayish brown, with overall mostly bland figuring. Color tends to lighten and fade with exposure to light.
  • Sapwood is yellow to nearly white, about 1 to 2 inches wide, and is clearly demarcated from the heartwood.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is generally straight, though occasionally interlocked. Texture is fine to medium and uniform, with slight natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Mansonia is very durable in regards to decay resistance, and is also resistant to termite and insect attack. Mansonia has good outdoor weathering properties.
  • Workability: With the exception of the sawdust’s deleterious effects on health, Mansonia is easy to work with both hand and machine tools.
  • . It glues, turns, and finishes well, and also has good steam bending properties.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Mansonia is on the short list as one of the worst wood species in terms of toxicity and commonness of allergic reactions. Mansonia has been reported as a sensitizer
  • Reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, the wood dust can also produce other effects, including nausea, giddiness, sneezing, headaches, nosebleeds, infected splinters & asthma, like symptoms
  • Additionally, both the bark and heartwood have been found to contain cardiac poisons, which can cause heart disorders.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, cabinetry, furniture, boatbuilding, and turned objects.

Bubinga

  • Common Name(s): Bubinga, Kevazingo
  • Scientific Name: Guibourtia spp. (G. demeusei, G. pellegriniana, G. tessmannii, etc.)
  • Distribution: Equatorial Africa
  • Tree Size: 130-150 ft (40-45 m) tall, 3-6 ft (1-2 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 56 lbs/ft3 (890 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .72, .89
  • Janka Hardness: 2,410 lbf (10,720 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 24,410 lbf/in2 (168.3 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 2,670,000 lbf/in2 (18.41 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 10,990 lbf/in2 (75.8 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 6.0%, Tangential: 8.2%, Volumetric: 13.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.4
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood ranges from a pinkish red to a darker reddish brown with darker purple or black streaks. Sapwood is a pale straw color and is clearly demarcated from the heartwood
  • Bubinga is very frequently seen with a variety of figure, including: pommele, flamed, waterfall, quilted, mottled, etc.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is straight to interlocked. Has a uniform fine to medium texture and moderate natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Ranges from moderately durable to very durable depending upon the the species. Bubinga is also reported to be resistant to termite and marine borer attack.
  • Workability: Easy to work overall, though depending upon the species Bubinga can have silica present, which can prematurely dull cutting edges.
  • . Also, on pieces with figured or interlocking grain, tearout can occur during planing or other machining operations.
  • Gluing can occasionally be problematic due to Bubinga’s high density and natural oils. Turns and finishes well.
  • Odor: Bubinga is reported to have an unpleasant scent when the lumber is still wet, which disappears after the wood is dry.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Bubinga has been reported to cause skin irritation and/or skin lesions in some individuals.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, inlays, fine furniture, cabinetry, turnings, and other specialty items. Since Bubinga trees can grow so large, natural-edge slabs of the wood have also been used in tabletops

Danta

  • Description: A reddish brown hardwood from West Africa. Has an interlocked grain and sometimes feels a bit greasy. Can show small pin knots and borer holes.
  • Workability: Straight grain boards work quite well. The interlocked grain can cause some problems and increase the sanding required.
  • Applications: A very good furniture timber though can move around a bit
  • Availability: Generally available in 25, 38 and 50mm thick. Boards up to 300mm wide are not uncommon.
  • Durability: Heartwood is durable.

African Mahogany

  • Scientific Name: Khaya spp. (Khaya anthotheca, K. grandifoliola, K. ivorensis, K. senegalensis)
  • Distribution: West tropical Africa
  • Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 43 lbs/ft3 (685 kg/m3)
  • Janka Hardness: 910 lbf (4,040 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 12,240 lbf/in2 (84.4 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,383,000 lbf/in2 (9.54 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 8,100 lbf/in2 (55.9 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 3.7%, Tangential: 6.6%, Volumetric: 10.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.8
  • Color tends to darken with age. Quartersawn surfaces can also exhibit a ribbon-stripe appearance.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is straight to interlocked, with a medium to coarse texture. Good natural luster with a light-reflecting optical phenomenon known as chatoyancy.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as moderately durable; susceptible to insect attack.
  • Workability: Easy to work, glue, and finish. Tearout can sometimes be a problem if the grain is interlocked.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, African Mahogany has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List.
  • It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, plywood, turned items, furniture, boatbuilding, and interior trim.

Macore

  • Scientific Name: Tieghemella heckelii, Tieghemella africana
  • Distribution: Western and Middle Africa (from Sierra Leone to Gabon)
  • Tree Size: 180-200 ft (55-60 m) tall, 4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 43 lbs/ft3 (690 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .69
  • Janka Hardness: 1,110 lbf (4,940 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 16,030 lbf/in2 (110.6 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,520,000 lbf/in2 (10.48 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 8,510 lbf/in2 (58.7 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 5.5%, Tangential: 7.4%, Volumetric: 10.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.3
  • Color/Appearance: Pink or reddish brown, commonly with a mottled or wavy grain pattern. Figured grain patterns are commonly seen in Makore, and include: mottled, curly, wavy, and moire.
  • Grain/Texture: Makore has a fine texture with closed pores. It also tends to have a natural luster and shine from its high silica content. The grain can be straight, interlocked, or wavy.
  • Rot Resistance: Heartwood is very durable, and is also resistant to insect attack.
  • Workability: Generally easy to work, though sections with interlocked grain can cause tearout during planing or other machining operations.
  • Makore will react when put into direct contact with iron, becoming discolored and stained. Makore also has a pronounced blunting effect on cutters due to its high silica content.
  • Besides this dulling effect, Makore turns well, and is easy to glue and finish.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Makore has been reported to cause eye, throat, and skin irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List.
  • It is listed as endangered due to a population reduction of over 50% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, plywood, furniture, cabinetry, flooring, boatbuilding, musical instruments, turned objects, and other small wooden specialty items

Utile

  • Common Name(s): Utile, Sipo, Sipo Mahogany
  • Scientific Name: Entandrophragma utile
  • Distribution: West and Central Africa
  • Tree Size: 150-200 ft (45-60 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 40 lbs/ft3 (635 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .53, .63
  • Janka Hardness: 1,180 lbf (5,260 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 15,060 lbf/in2 (103.8 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,689,000 lbf/in2 (11.65 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 8,280 lbf/in2 (57.1 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 4.9%, Tangential: 6.9%, Volumetric: 11.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.4
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a uniform medium reddish brown. Well-defined sapwood is a paler yellow. Generally lacks any dramatic figuring of grain that is common in the closely related Sapele.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked, with a medium uniform texture. Moderate natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as moderately durable to durable, with mixed reports on insect resistance.
  • Workability: Utile can be troublesome to work in some machining operations, (i.e., planing, routing, etc.), resulting in tearout due to its interlocked grain.
  • It will also react when put into direct contact with iron, becoming discolored and stained. Turns, glues, and finishes well.
  • Odor: Utile has a mild, cedar-like scent while being worked.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Utile has been reported to cause skin irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List.
  • It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Furniture, cabinetry, veneer, boatbuilding, flooring, and turned objects.

Afzelia

  • Common Name(s): Afzelia, Doussie
  • Scientific Name: Afzelia spp.
  • Distribution: Africa and southeast Asia
  • Tree Size: 80-120 ft (25-37 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 50 lbs/ft3 (805 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .67, .80
  • Janka Hardness: 1,810 lbf (8,050 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 17,740 lbf/in2 (122.3 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 2,094,000 lbf/in2 (14.44 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 10,750 lbf/in2 (74.1 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 2.3%, Tangential: 3.9%, Volumetric: 6.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.7
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a reddish brown. Well defined sapwood is a pale yellowish white.
  • Color tends to darken with age. Pieces containing pommele or blistered figure are sometimes sold under the name Afzelia xylay,
  • which is a shortened version of the botanical name of a particular Asian species, Afzelia xylocarpa.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked with a uniform medium to coarse texture; naturally lustrous.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as very durable. Moderately resistant to termites, and variously resistant/susceptible to other insect attacks.
  • Workability: Generally considered somewhat difficult to work on account of its interlocked grain, causing tearout during machining operations. Afzelia also has a pronounced dulling effect on cutters.
  • . Gluing and finishing can be variable, and some species contain water-soluble yellow deposits in the pores which can pose challenges in staining or finishing with water-based products.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Afzelia has been reported to cause skin, eye, and respiratory irritation, as well as sneezing.
  • Sustainability: Afzelia is on the IUCN Red List. Depending on the species,
  • it is listed as vulnerable to endangered due to a population reduction of at least 20% to 50% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Furniture, cabinetry, veneer, flooring, docks, boatbuilding, exterior millwork and construction, turned objects, inlays, and other small specialty wood items.

Ekki

  • Common Name(s): Ekki, Azobe
  • Scientific Name: Lophira alata
  • Distribution: West Africa
  • Tree Size: 100-150 ft (30-46 m) tall, 5-6 ft (1.5-1.8 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 66 lbs/ft3 (1,065 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .82, 1.06
  • Janka Hardness: 3,220 lbf (14,330 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 28,390 lbf/in2 (195.8 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 2,754,000 lbf/in2 (18.99 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 13,890 lbf/in2 (95.8 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 8.0%, Tangential: 11.1%, Volumetric: 18.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.4
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a dark reddish or violet brown. Pores contain light-colored mineral deposits which form small but conspicuous streaks throughout the wood.
  • Sapwood is a pale pinkish white, with a gradual transition zone between the heartwood and sapwood.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked, with a coarse texture and low natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as very durable, with good resistance to insect attacks. Good weathering characteristics.
  • Workability: Difficult to work on account of its density and interlocked grain, which can cause tearout. Ekki also has a pronounced blunting effect on cutting edges.
  • Gluing can also pose problems due to its density and oil content.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Ekki has been reported to cause skin irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is on the IUCN Red List.
  • It is listed as vulnerable due to a population reduction of over 20% in the past three generations, caused by a decline in its natural range, and exploitation.
  • Common Uses: Bridges, boatbuilding, marine applications, decking, and flooring.

Chenchen

  • Common Name(s): Chechen, Chechem, Black Poisonwood, Caribbean Rosewood
  • Scientific Name: Metopium brownei
  • Distribution: Dominican Republic, Cuba, Jamaica, northern Guatemala, Belize, and southeastern Mexico
  • Tree Size: 50-115 ft (15-35 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 57 lbs/ft3 (920 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .74, .92
  • Janka Hardness: 2,300 lbf (10,200 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: No data available
  • Elastic Modulus: No data available
  • Crushing Strength: No data available
  • Shrinkage: Radial: ~4%, Tangential: ~7%, Volumetric: ~10%
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood color is highly varied, with red, orange, and brown contrasted with darker stripes of blackish brown.
  • Color tends to shift to a darker reddish brown with age. Well defined sapwood is a pale yellow
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is usually straight, but may be wild or interlocked. With a uniform medium to fine texture and good natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as being very durable, and moderately resistant to most insect attacks.
  • Workability: Fairly easy to work, but tearout may occur when machining pieces with interlocked grain.
  • Glues and finishes well, though because of its density and tendency to split, nails and screws should be pre-bored.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Chechen has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, furniture, cabinetry, flooring, turned objects, and small specialty wood items.

Etimoe

  • Origin: Moist evergreen forests of West Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria)
  • Color: Gray with a reddish shimmer, takes on a red-brown, copper-like glossy coloring when exposed to light.
  • Characteristics: Resinous deposits in the channels turn black after drying and make the wood appear veined.
  • Application: Etimoe is a good design and carpentry wood. Thick logs can be quarter-sliced and clearly show the popular striped character.

African Padouk

  • Scientific Name: Pterocarpus soyauxii
  • Distribution: Central and tropical west Africa
  • Tree Size:100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 46 lbs/ft3 (740 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .61, .74
  • Janka Hardness: 1,970 lbf (8,760 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 16,830 lbf/in2 (116.0 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,700,000 lbf/in2 (11.72 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 8,130 lbf/in2 (56.0 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 3.3%, Tangential: 5.2%, Volumetric: 7.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.6
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood color can vary, ranging from a pale pinkish orange to a deep brownish red.
  • Most pieces tend to start reddish orange when freshly cut, darkening substantially over time to a reddish/purplish brown.
  • Padauk’s initial orange coloration can be preserved through various finishing procedures; see the article Preventing Color Changes in Exotic Woods for more information.
  • Grain/Texture: Has a coarse texture and fairly large and open pores. Grain is usually straight, but can sometimes be interlocked.
  • Rot Resistance: Has excellent decay resistance, and is rated as durable to very durable. Padauk is also reported to be resistant to termites and other insects.
  • Workability: Overall Padauk is easy to work; tearout may also occur during planing on quartersawn or interlocked grain. Padauk turns, glues, and finishes well.
  • Odor: Padauk has a faint aromatic scent while being worked.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Padauk has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye, skin, and respiratory irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, flooring, turned objects, musical instruments, furniture, tool handles, and other small specialty wood objects.

Koto

  • Origin: West Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon
  • Color: This wood is white-yellow to brownish yellow. The sapwood is somewhat lighter, but hardly distinguishable from the heartwood.
  • Characteristics: The medium-size pores are scattered and numerous. The medullary rays are very fine and identifiable in longitudinal section as variously long, thin lines.
  • Application: Is used in a variety of ways for veneer, plywood, interior finishing, furniture and musical instruments.

Kosipo

  • Origin: The wet forests of West Africa
  • Color: The sapwood is gray to light brown, the heartwood is sharply distinct from it, a red-brown and deep violet which tend to darken.
  • Characteristics: The coarse, regularly scattered pores are not very numerous. Kosipo wood is generally straight grained.
  • Application: Owing to its large diameter, its saturated coloring and strong, uniform glossy stripes, Kosipo is especially well suited to producing quarter-sliced veneer,
  • for door layons, built-in furniture, partitions, decorative surfaces and all sorts of wainscoting. It is also suited to interior finishing and outdoor construction, artistic cabinetmaking & furniture
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