European Lumber

European Lumber

WoodLand European Lumber: Indoors & Outdoors

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European Beech

  • Distribution: Europe
  • Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 45 lbs/ft3 (720 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .53, .72
  • Janka Hardness: 1,450 lbf (6,460 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 15,970 lbf/in2 (110.1 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 2,075,000 lbf/in2 (14.31 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 8,270 lbf/in2 (57.0 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 5.7%, Tangential: 11.6%, Volumetric: 17.3%, T/R Ratio: 2.0
  • Color/Appearance: Beech is typically a pale cream color, sometimes with a pink or brown hue. Veneer tends to be slightly darker colored.
  • Color/Appearance: slicing the veneer usually requires the wood to be prepared with steam, which gives the wood a more golden tone.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a fine to medium uniform texture. Moderate natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Beech is considered non-durable or perishable; it is also susceptible to insect attack.
  • Workability: Overall good workability; it machines well, and glues, finishes, and turns well. Beech also responds superbly to steam-bending.
  • Workability: They have a large amount of movement in service, so movement and wood stability must be taken into account.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, European Beech has been reported as been reported as a sensitizer.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Usually most common reactions simply include eye, skin, and respiratory irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: Lumber, veneer, flooring, boat-building, furniture, cabinetry, musical instruments (piano pinblocks), plywood, and turned objects.

Olive

  • Distribution: Europe and eastern Africa
  • Tree Size: 25-50 ft (8-15 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1.0-1.5 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 62 lbs/ft3 (990 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .72, .99
  • Janka Hardness: 2,700 lbf (12,010 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 22,530 lbf/in2 (155.4 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 2,577,000 lbf/in2 (17.77 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 11,180 lbf/in2 (77.1 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 5.4%, Tangential: 8.8%, Volumetric: 14.4%, T/R Ratio: 1.6
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a cream or yellowish brown, with darker brown or black contrasting streaks.
  • Color/Appearance: Color tends to deepen with age. Olive is somtimes figured with curly or wavy grain, burl, or wild grain.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain may be straight, interlocked, or wild. Fine uniform texture with moderate natural luster.
  • Rot Resistance: Conflicting reports range from non-durable/perishable to durable/moderately durable. Olive is susceptible to insect attack.
  • Workability: Somewhat easy to work, though wild or interlocked grain may result in tearout during surfacing operations.
  • Workability: Olive has high movement in service and is considered to have poor stability. Turns superbly. Glues and finishes well.
  • Odor: Has a distinct, fruity scent when being worked.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Olive has been reported as a sensitizer. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: High-end furniture, veneer, turned objects, and small specialty wood items.

Pear

  • Common Name(s): Pear, Swiss Pear
  • Distribution: Native to central and eastern Europe; also widely planted throughout temperate regions worldwide
  • Tree Size: 20-30 ft (6-9 m) tall, .5-1 ft (15-30 cm) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 43 lbs/ft3 (690 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .52, .69
  • Janka Hardness: 1,660 lbf (7,380 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 12,080 lbf/in2 (83.3 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,131,000 lbf/in2 (7.80 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 6,400 lbf/in2 (44.1 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 3.9%, Tangential: 11.3%, Volumetric: 13.8%, T/R Ratio: 2.9
  • Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a pale pink or light reddish brown. Sapwood is slightly paler but is not usually distinct from heartwood. Pear is sometimes steamed to deepen the pink coloration.
  • Color/Appearance: Pear is also occasionally dyed black and used as a substitute for ebony.
  • Grain/Texture: Grain is usually straight, with a very fine uniform texture.
  • Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable regarding decay resistance.
  • Workability: Overall easy to work with both hand and machine tools. Turns, glues, and finishes well.
  • Odor: No characteristic odor.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: There has been no adverse health effects associated with Pear.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Common Uses: Veneer, architectural millwork, marquetry, inlay, carving, musical instruments, furniture, cabinetry, and turned objects.

Pacific Yew

  • Common Name(s): Pacific Yew, Oregon Yew
  • Distribution: Pacific Northwest North America
  • Tree Size: 30-50 ft (10-15 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter
  • Average Dried Weight: 46 lbs/ft3 (745 kg/m3)
  • Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .60, .74
  • Janka Hardness: 1,600 lbf (7,120 N)
  • Modulus of Rupture: 15,200 lbf/in2 (104.8 MPa)
  • Elastic Modulus: 1,350,000 lbf/in2 (9.31 GPa)
  • Crushing Strength: 8,100 lbf/in2 (55.9 MPa)
  • Shrinkage: Radial: 4.0%, Tangential: 5.4%, Volumetric: 9.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.4
  • Color/Appearance: Sapwood is usually a thin band of pale yellow or tan color, while the heartwood is an orangish brown, sometimes with a darker brown or purplish hueColor tends to darken with age.
  • Grain/Texture: Pacific Yew has a tight grain, a fine texture, and a natural luster. As with all softwoods, the pores are closed.
  • Grain/Texture: Yew is not commonly available in large or wide boards, and knots and other defects are commonly present, as well as sections with wild or irregular grain.
  • Rot Resistance: Pacific Yew is very durable in regard to decay resistance, and is also resistant to most insect attack.
  • Workability: Overall, an easy wood to work, though knots and other grain irregularities can pose a challenge. Yew glues, finishes, and turns well.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Yew has been reported as a irritant. Usually most common reactions simply include eye, skin, and respiratory irritation & nausia.
  • Allergies/Toxicity: Nearly all parts of the Yew tree are considered toxic and poisonous to humans, and care should be exercised when working with this wood species.
  • Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is reported by the IUCN as being near threatened.
  • Sustainability: Technically it doesn’t meet the Red List criteria of a vulnerable or endangered species, but is close to qualifying and/or may qualify in the near future.
  • Common Uses: Bows (archery), veneer, cabinetry, furniture, carvings, musical instruments (lutes), and turned objects.

Larch

  • Origin: Central Europe
  • Color: The sapwood is yellowish white, the heartwood is reddish brown and darkens later.
  • Characteristics: Clearly recognizable growth rings through the wide, dark late wood zones, as well as straight fiber growth with a fine, uniform texture.
  • Application: Larchwood is especially well suited for outdoor work, as for shipbuilding and bride construction.
  • It is also used in interior and exterior construction, for doors, gates, stairs and windows. Larch is also made into veneer.
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